Lena Smart makes the perfect pitch for being a CISO.She talks up the multitude of good opportunities in the field and points to the plethora of interesting challenges that come with the role.She speaks about the strong relationships she has forged as a CISO, and she readily discusses the high levels of trust that exist between her, her team, and the other executives.She also likes that she can set a security strategy and know that the organization supports her as she does what\u2019s needed to implement it. MongoDBLena Smart,\u00a0CISO, MongoDB\u201cThe buck stops with me. I think that\u2019s what gives me satisfaction,\u201d says Smart, who in 2019 became the first CISO at MongoDB\u2014her third chief security position.Not surprisingly, Smart\u2019s enthusiasm and professed love for her job isn\u2019t universal among security leaders. The level of satisfaction vs. dissatisfaction varies from one survey to the next; some reports indicate that CISOs are overwhelmingly satisfied with their work, while others have uncovered some significant discontent.CISO satisfaction: by the numbersThe 2020 Cybersecurity Professionals Salary, Skills and Stress Survey from the security tech company Exabeam found that 96% of respondents were happy with their role and responsibilities and 87% were pleased with their salary and earnings. The 2020 CISO Compensation and Budget Benchmark Study from IANS Research and Caldwell Partners\u2019 Cyber Security Practice also found that the vast majority of CISOs are satisfied in their positions.Tech Spotlight: IT Leadership7 skills of successful digital leaders (CIO)How to make the hybrid workplace a success (Computerworld)CISO job satisfaction: Finding meaning in the mission (CSO)12 ways to make really bad technology decisions (InfoWorld)Network certifications 2021: Significant pay benefits for the right ones (Network World)On the flip side, however, the 2021 Voice of the CISO Report from security tech company Proofpoint found that 57% of CISOs believed that the expectations on their role were excessive and nearly half didn\u2019t believe that their organizations positioned them to succeed.But those reports are just a start to the narrative, casting a spotlight on what makes the position exciting and fulfilling or, conversely, what makes it frustrating and unsatisfying\u2014and how each side of that divide can positively or negatively impact an organization\u2019s ability to secure itself and attract the talent needed to do so.Of course, there are happy and unhappy workers in any role at all levels and for all manner of reasons, but there are some commonalities in what brings CISOs satisfaction that are indeed informative, both about the role and the people who are drawn to it.A sense of purpose\u201cI feel like security in a way is a calling. If you find your calling and you find a place where you fit in, there\u2019s nothing better than that,\u201d says George Finney, CISO at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, founder and CEO of Well Aware Security and author of Well Aware: Master the Nine Cybersecurity Habits to Protect Your Future. Southern Methodist UniversityGeorge Finney,\u00a0CISO, Southern Methodist UniversityFor Finney, like many security leaders and staff, the variety of challenges that the job brings his way is part of what keeps him engaged in the role. \u201cIt\u2019s something new every day; that is so exciting\u2014I hear that from every security person, too\u2014and the fact that we\u2019re not limited to one part of the business, and we work with everybody,\u201d Finney says. And, like other successful leaders, Finney enjoys the people-oriented parts of the job: networking with other CISOs and being part of the cybersecurity community as well as helping his staffers grow and move up the security ranks. But one of the most significant drivers of job satisfaction for Finney and other CISOs we spoke with is how their role makes a difference.\u201cI love being able to take apart a problem and find a good solution for it and finding those real solutions that will actually work to prevent bad things from happening,\u201d Finney says.Veteran security leader Ryan Gurney says the ability \u201cto mitigate the risk down for the company\u201d directly correlated to his job satisfaction. \u201cI always felt that I had what I needed, and I was able to do what I needed to do,\u201d he says.Indeed, the Proofpoint survey finds that having a clear sense of purpose in helping society (44%) and responsibility of crafting a response using technology, people and\/or processes to address evolving risk (44%) are top reasons for CISO job satisfaction.Finney speaks directly to those points, saying \u201cI want to be in a role where I can make a difference. That\u2019s what motivates me to get out of the bed in the morning.\u201dLeaving their markFor Andy Ellis, a former CSO, a 2021 inductee into CSOonline's CSO Hall of Fame, and now operating partner at YL Ventures, the mission is key.\u201cThe mission was the most satisfying part certainly for me and I have anecdotal evidence that it is the same for others, that you can see how you can change the world,\u201d he says. \u201cI think that\u2019s what everyone wants: They want to know they left a mark on the world even if no one else knows.\u201d YL VenturesAndy Ellis,\u00a0operating partner, YL VenturesThe CISO position is one of the few roles that actually allows for such tangible results, Ellis adds.\u201cWhen those bad things don\u2019t happen to your organization, and the reason they didn\u2019t is because you made a change [in the security posture], that\u2019s very fulfilling,\u201d he says.In fact, CISO surveys as well as interviews with security leaders turn up general themes that correspond to Ellis\u2019 observation. The findings indicate that those CISOs who feel satisfied in their roles and with their work are those who have the authority to set strategy; the autonomy, resources, and teams to pursue their objectives in the ways they believe are best; and the trust of others throughout the organization to deliver on objectives.\u201cThat\u2019s the key thing for me to look for: alignment with what you think your job is and what the company thinks your job is,\u201d Ellis says.Seeds of discontentOf course, nearly everyone, including even the most satisfied CISOs, have parts of their jobs they dislike and have weathered significant, sometime unpleasant issues throughout their careers. They\u2019ve had, for example, frustrating disputes with colleagues about investments and strategies. Some have had to contend with breaches. But on the whole they say they\u2019ve been satisfied with their ability to successfully do their jobs.That contrasts with the CISOs who in studies and in shared anecdotes express ongoing dissatisfaction and frustration.The IANS survey listed the top three causes for CISO dissatisfaction as insufficient budget, lack of organizational support, and inadequate career development.Meanwhile, the CISO Stress Report: Life inside the Perimeter, One Year On from U.K. domain-name registrar Nominet found that 88% of CISOs say they remain moderately or highly stressed with nearly all CISOs\u2014some 95%\u2014working more than their contracted hours. Moreover, 48% said the excessive stress impacted their mental health and 35% said it impacted their physical health.Security leaders say the CISOs they know who are most unhappy in their jobs are those who aren\u2019t seen as executive peers within their organizations, who must fight for needed resources, and who still don\u2019t have the support they require to adequately secure the enterprise.\u201cMany aren\u2019t in the board room like the other C-levels are, and I do hear this frustration from many that they\u2019re not getting the support of management,\u201d says Gurney, who formerly led security at two tech firms and is now CISO-in-residence at YL Ventures.That in turn can limit a CISO\u2019s ability, or willingness, to tolerate the continuous stresses of the job\u2014its 24\/7 onslaught of cyberattacks, the sometimes thankless nature of the position, the struggles to recruit enough qualified talent.\u201cThey expect they\u2019re part of the decision-making process, and they\u2019re not. They\u2019re not necessarily aligned with the CEO and the board, so they\u2019re in the middle of this tension,\u201d Ellis says.That leads to more than a dissatisfied CISO; it can lead to more frequent turnover in the role at the organization, and ultimately it can translate to a suboptimal security posture.Ellis and others say they haven\u2019t seen CISOs shirk their duties or disengage in such situations. But they note that such CISOs face more challenges in building an effective and sustainable security operation and have greater hurdles in attracting and retaining top talent due to the misalignment and overall lack of support.However, security leaders stress that CISOs aren\u2019t powerless even in those situations. Rather, they can work to cultivate better relationships with their executive colleagues; advocate for inclusion in strategic planning and decision-making conversations; and learn to more effectively communicate security needs in terms of business risks.\u201cYou need to have a good story, and it needs to be understandable and relatable,\u201d Smart says.Finney has a similar thought, saying: \u201cWhen there is disagreement, I have to wonder if I did my job well enough to tell the story, because if they\u2019re getting the picture, then my job should be easy.\u201dExperienced security leaders also say dissatisfied CISOs may need to engage in some introspection and consider whether they really want the executive role; whether they\u2019d be more satisfied in other positions, such as ones that leverage their technical skills rather than their managerial ones; or whether they\u2019re in the right position but working at the wrong company.After all, they add, the high demand for security experts means switching jobs is always an option. There\u2019s no reason to stay somewhere that\u2019s not the right fit.