While safeguarding personal and business data has always been important, the necessity for maintaining digital privacy has become even more vital as more of our records are digitized.People are starting to realize that passwords alone aren't enough. Even with password protection, anything on your computer can potentially be viewed by an enterprising hacker. And if your computer is lost or stolen, its hard drive can be removed and connected to a new computer, revealing its secrets. To be safer, encryption is the way to go. These days, the accepted standard for encryption is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm with a 256-bit key.Once encrypted, there's only one way to get the original file back: Enter the correct password and the file reappears several seconds (sometimes minutes) later. Use the wrong password and you get nothing.You also need to be especially careful when you get rid of a system or a hard drive. It's not enough to simply reformat the hard drive. As most computer-savvy users know, when you delete a file, all that is actually removed is the File Allocation Table (FAT) entry that the computer uses to track of what's on the drive. The underlying data remains intact until that part of the drive is overwritten with a new file.A military-grade shredder, such as those that meet the Department of Defense's 5220.22M standard, starts by removing its FAT entry from the system's drive and then randomizes the underlying data on the drive where the file was stored. In other words, it's completely unrecoverable.If your system is equipped with the Pro or Enterprise version of Windows 8.x or Windows 10, you're already set -- you're equipped with , which encrypts full volumes with the 128- or 256-bit AES cypher. By the same token, Apple's Mac OS 10.7 or later includes FileVault 2, which can encrypt a system's image with 128-bit XTS AES protection.However, if you use a different version of these operating systems -- or if you want to encrypt only specific folders or files rather than the entire drive -- there are other resources. For this roundup, I looked at five programs that can encrypt the files and folders you want to keep and shred those you don't: CryptoForge Encryption Software, Inv Softworks Kryptel, Kakasoft Advanced Folder Encryption, Kruptos 2 Professional and QuickCrypto. (All of the packages support Windows PCs; only Kruptos 2 Professional supports Macs.)There's a lot of variation in these five programs -- mostly involving speed, level of customization and whether or not you can recover a lost or forgotten password. When it comes to shredding, the best let you choose how many passes the program makes, making the safety of your data even more certain.How I testedUsing an HP Elitebook Folio G1, I ran tests on a batch of ten files (including .DOC, .PDF, .XLS, .WAV, .WMV and .PPT formats); together, they totaled 140MB. I ran them both from the computer's drive and from a Lexar 16GB USB thumb drive.I used a stopwatch to time how long it took to encrypt the files using AES encryption with a 256-bit key. When encrypting, I used the same password for all the folders and files. I then searched for one of the encrypted files and made sure it couldn't be opened without the password. I used the stopwatch to time how long it took to decrypt the files and noted any problems with the decrypted files.I also encrypted and decrypted a single 1.3GB video (.MP4) file and timed those operations.Finally, I tested each program's shredding capabilities by timing how long it took to destroy the video file. For those applications that allowed me to control the number of passes, I set the parameter to 5. I then checked to see if the file was gone.CryptoForge Encryption SoftwareCryptoForge offers four different encryption techniques with keys as long as 448 bits. Interestingly, though, it provides only one way to encrypt and shred files: Through Windows File Explorer.At $40 for a single user, CryptoForge gives you a nice choice of encryption formats: Blowfish (448-bit key), AES (256-bit key), Triple DES (268-bit key) and Gost (256-bit key). It works on systems running Windows XP and later.CryptoForge took about two minutes to download and install. Once installed, I found it a little confusing because it's actually made up of four apps -- and doesn't offer a common interface. These apps include:Files for encrypting, decrypting or shredding files as well as changing CryptoForge's settings.Text for writing and encrypting notes.Updater for -- well, for updating the software.Decrypter for enabling encrypted files to be opened on another PC that doesn't have CryptoForge installed (as long as you have the password).It only took me a minute to use the Files app to set up 256-bit AES encryption, along with my shredding parameters. You just right-click on a file or folder in File Explorer to select it. Then using the drop-down menu, you click on Encrypt, Decrypt or Shred to start the process.Each time you create a password for an encrypted file, CryptoForge judges its strength with a color-coded bar. Oddly, my password was rated as green (pretty good) by CryptoForge but only adequate with Kruptos and mediocre with QuickCrypto.CryptoForge keeps the passwords you set for your encrypted items in a separately encrypted file, which can be recovered if you forget them. This can be handy, although it's more secure if your encryption program doesn't allow you to recover lost passwords.CryptoForge uses the DoD 5220.22M technique for shredding data. You can adjust it for between one and 99 passes. The program warns you that the items will be permanently deleted.Test resultsDon't get CryptoForge if you're in a hurry. Using 256-bit AES encryption, the program was the slowest of the five reviewed here, taking 21.9 seconds to encrypt the batch of ten files from the desktop and 5.3 seconds to decrypt them. Using a USB thumb drive, it took 2 minutes, 23.4 seconds to encrypt and 1 minute, 7.7 seconds to decrypt the files.It encrypted the 1.3GB video file in one minute, 31.4 seconds and decrypted it in 16.6 seconds. Finally, CryptoForge took 59.9 seconds to shred the video file with five passes.Bottom lineI applaud CryptoForge for the freedom of choice it offers: Four encryption techniques and the ability to pick how many shredding passes the software makes. On the other hand, I would have preferred it to allow you to encrypt files within its interface rather than just using the File Explorer. In addition, a little more speed wouldn't hurt.At a GlanceCryptoForge Encryption SoftwarePrice: $40 (vendor price)Pros: Choice of four encryption techniques; includes free decryption app; shredding can use up to 99 passesCons: Works only via File Explorer; uses four separate appsInv Softworks KryptelInv Softworks' Kryptel not only provides four different encryption methods but has wizards that make it easier to encrypt files or make them vanish.Kryptel can be used on systems with Windows Vista and later. In addition to a free version that just shreds and encrypts files, the Standard Edition ($30), which was the one reviewed, can save encrypted backups and be run from a USB drive. The Enterprise Edition ($40) adds a command line interface and 64-bit operations, if your computer supports it.Downloading and installing the program took me about two minutes. When I started it up, it asked if I wanted to use any of its wizards for encrypting, decrypting or shredding files and folders. These step-by-step sequences are ideal for those who have never used encryption before and want the process simplified. Other users can dive right into the program.There are actually two ways to use Kryptel. You can select items from Kryptel's built-in browser window, or you can right-click on anything in the Windows File Explorer and then select encrypt, decrypt or shred. Kryptel encrypts files and folders, but not full drives or disk volumes.Every time you enter a password, Kryptel gives you its opinion of how secure that password is with a color code (red to green) and also rates it weak, mediocre or good; if you need one, there's a primer on passwords in the Help section. In my case, the same password that got a green rating by CryptoForge was judged mediocre by Kryptel. The program doesn't have its own extension for encrypted files and can't recover a lost password.Kryptel's default setting is for 256-bit AES encryption, but it also offers Blowfish (576-bit key), Twofish (256-bit key), Serpent (256-bit key) or Triple DES (168-bit key). It's on a par with CryptoForge in the variety of algorithms available, but the 576-bit key option is potentially the most secure of all the software reviewed here.Like the others, Kryptel's shredder uses the DoD 5220.22M algorithm that randomizes the underlying data. You can choose to have it do between one and nine passes.If you suspect that a keylogger or password sniffer has been placed on your computer, Kryptel has an encrypted on-screen keyboard that can keep your passwords secret.Test resultsKryptel took 11.6 seconds to encrypt and 3.1 seconds to decrypt my group of ten files from the desktop. It took 51.8 seconds and 46.9 seconds, respectively, to do the same thing from a USB thumb drive.Its ability to work with the 1.3GB video file was about equal to Kruptos, although it was faster at encrypting and slower at decrypting the file. With its shredder set to make five passes, it destroyed the 1.3GB video file in 32.7 seconds.Bottom lineBy guiding new users through the process of encrypting, decrypting and shredding files, Kryptel wizards are great tools for anxious encrypters; in addition, the program has an excellent variety of algorithms available.At a GlanceInv Softworks KryptelPrice: $30 (vendor price)Pros: Wizards to simplify processes; includes browser window; virtual keyboardCons: Uneven speeds while processingKakasoft Advanced Folder EncryptionKakasoft's Advanced Folder Encryption isn't as flexible as some of its competitors -- it offers only AES encryption with a 256-bit key and the Department of Defense's 5220.22M shredding standard (with what it calls "several" passes). However, the program has at least one advantage: It lets you encrypt an entire drive.It is free to download and use; there is also a licensed $30 version (which is the one that was reviewed). The two are essentially the same, except the full version has a feature called the Restore Center, which lets you change the password of an already encrypted file. It works with Windows versions starting with 2000.Advanced Folder Encryption took less than a minute to download and install on my test bed. The program's interface runs on half the screen, which doesn't give you a lot of space to work with if you have a lot of files to encrypt or shred. Alternatively, you can right-click on any item in the File Explorer or drag an item into the interface to get things started. At that point, you can encrypt, decrypt or shred files.Other than picking a skin to change the program's look or the icon you want the program to use to identify encrypted files, there's not much to customize or adjust. All encrypted files have a .KFE extension. There are three settings: Normal (hides and locks, but doesn't encrypt the file), High (scrambles the data and encrypts the file name) or Highest (full AES encryption). If you use the Normal setting, the program can recover a lost key -- which can be good or bad, depending on how secure you want the encryption to be. On the other hand, as you increase the security setting, speed of operation will drop.Unlike some of the other applications reviewed here, such as Kruptos and QuickCrypto, when you enter a password to encrypt a file, the program doesn't rate its strength.Advanced Folder Encryption doesn't encrypt email attachments or have a file decryption app for use at the recipient's end. On the other hand, it can encrypt full drives, which most of the competition can't.Test resultsUsing the program's highest setting, Advanced Folder Encryption encrypted the batch of ten files in 7.6 seconds and decrypted them in 5.8 seconds. It was able to do the same to and from a USB thumb drive in 52.8 and 45.9 seconds.It encrypted and decrypted the 1.3GB video file in 21.7 and 17.2 seconds, respectively, and shredded the file in 16.9 seconds.Bottom lineIf you're the type who doesn't like fiddling with controls or tweaking a program's settings, yet want data protection, Advanced Folder Encryption delivers with the ability to secure or shred a file, folder or an entire drive.At a GlanceKakasoft Advanced Folder EncryptionPrice: Free for basic version; $30 for licensed version (vendor price)Pros: Full drive encryption; users can work with its interface or with File ExplorerCons: Not many user adjustments available\tKruptos 2 ProfessionalKruptos 2 Professional offers a choice of encryption techniques, a thorough file shredder and file protection for phones and tablets.Kruptos 2 Professional costs $35 (there is a free trial version that only lasts for seven days). It is available for Windows Vista and later, and for Mac OS; there is also a free app for Android devices that encrypts but doesn't shred files. The company says its iOS app should be ready soon.The software took about two minutes to install. The first time you use Kruptos 2 Pro, you choose between always using the same password to encrypt files or entering a new one every time you use it.Kruptos appraises every password's strength with a color bar (green, yellow or red); the password that I used for testing got a yellow warning. The program cannot recover a lost password.It lets you choose between AES with a 256-bit key or the Blowfish algorithm with a 448-bit key. There are a variety of ways you can start the encryption process: You can drop a file or folder into the Kruptos interface; click on the program's Encrypt file button to select an item from the interface's list; or right click on any file or folder in the File Explorer, select Kruptos 2 Professional and click on Encrypt. (Note: In the Mac version, you cannot access the feature by right clicking on files\/folders in the Finder.) The resulting file has a .KP2 extension.Kruptos also has a SecureNotes feature that lets you type encrypted notes directly into the program.At any time, Kruptos can create an email with a self-extracting encrypted file attachment. Recipients won't need to install the program to open the encrypted file; they'll just need the password.Kruptos also lets you upload an encrypted file into an online storage service like Dropbox, Google Drive or OneDrive; you can also encrypt a file that is already stored on one of those services.Test resultsAs far as my testing was concerned, this was the encryption speedster, taking 2.7 seconds to encrypt ten files from the desktop and 1.4 seconds to decrypt them. It took 35.5 seconds and 35.2 seconds respectively to encrypt and decrypt the files on a USB thumb drive.When it came to working with the 1.3GB video file, Kruptos encrypted the data in 17.5 seconds and decrypted it in 20.8 seconds. The program's shredder uses the DoD 5220.22M algorithm and can be set to between seven and 23 passes so that it thoroughly wipes a file. With the program set to seven passes, the program took 5.1 seconds to shred the video file.I also tried out the Android version. Its interface is clean and uncluttered, and lets you select files on your phone or tablet for encryption.Bottom lineKruptos is a one-stop data security center for Windows, Mac OS and Android systems that quickly encrypts data, and an iOS version is on the way. It can make the world a safer place, at least for your data.At a GlanceKruptos 2 ProfessionalPrice: $35 (vendor price)Pros: Encrypted email option; online storage encryption; offers a Mac version and an Android app; two encryption techniquesCons: No free version (seven-day trial available)QuickCrypto - Ultimate EditionWith three encryption techniques at its disposal, QuickCrypto\u00a0lets you decide how much security you need for your particular needs.There are three versions to choose from. QuickCrypto - Standard Edition ($19) \u00a0encrypts and shreds files; QuickCrypto - Professional Edition ($32) promises faster processing and lets you recover deleted files; QuickCrypto - Ultimate Edition ($45 and the one reviewed here) adds password recovery and other features. (Note: Because QuickCrypto is a U.K. company, all prices are approximate depending on the exchange rate.) All editions work with Windows versions from XP to 10.QuickCrypto lives up to its name -- it took about a minute to download and install. The default black and yellow interface has a prominent sheriff's badge that says "Secure Crypto System -- Digital Defense." It's a little ominous for my tastes, but you can choose from five skins to alter its appearance.It took me a while to learn how to use QuickCrypto, mostly because it doesn't look like any other program I'm familiar with. On the left side is a bunch of tasks, like Encrypt, Decrypt and Shred. In the upper right corner there are two dashes and an "X." As expected, the "X" closes the program and the bottom dash minimizes the window. The upper dash, though, runs the program full screen; I was looking for a square-outline icon to do this.If all that is too off-putting, you can use QuickCrypto to encrypt, decrypt or shred files or folders by right-clicking on them in File Explorer\u00a0(it can't encrypt an entire disk). The program attaches a .QCE extension to encrypted files. And be careful: It can't recover a lost or forgotten password.In addition to 256-bit AES, QuickCrypto offers 448-bit Blowfish and 168-bit Triple DES encryption. QuickCrypto also has a DoD 5220.22M-compliant shredder that's set for seven passes.When you create a password, QuickCrypto gives its security appraisal; the password I used for all five programs rated a 54 out of 100.Like Kruptos, QuickCrypto can set up an encrypted email attachment, but goes a step further by encrypting the actual message as well. This works only with Outlook, though. There's also an on-screen encrypted keyboard if you suspect a keylogger might have infected your computer.There's a one-click way to lock the workstation and turn off the screen, essentially putting it to sleep: Just click on the shield logo in the interface's upper right corner.Test resultsThe program encrypted my group of ten test files from the desktop in 7 seconds, slower than Kruptos and Kryptel. On the other hand, it was faster than Kryptel at decrypting the file, taking 4.4 seconds. With the files residing on a USB thumb drive, it took 1 minute, 58.2 seconds to encrypt and 1 minute, 15.2 seconds to decrypt, tying with CryptoForge as the slowest.It was also slow to encrypt the 1.3GB video file, taking 36.7 seconds, but fast to decrypt it, taking 13.7 seconds. It took 4.9 seconds to shred it, the fastest of the bunch.Bottom lineIt may not be the fastest overall, provide the most choice as far as encryption techniques goes or look like other Windows programs, but QuickCrypto lets you keep your files and emails safe and secure while providing an encrypted on-screen keyboard.At a GlanceQuickCrypto UltimatePrice: $45 (vendor price)Pros: Three encryption algorithms; can create encrypted email; screen security; encrypted keyboardCons: Odd interfaceConclusionsAny of the five encryption programs I looked at can keep your secrets safe and secure or eradicate the things you don't want around anymore on a Windows system. What separates them are their ability to be customized, their speed and how many platforms they run on.CryptoForge offers a good range of encryption techniques and the ability to customize the shredder to up to 99 passes. However, it relies on File Explorer for selecting what to encrypt, decrypt or shred rather than offering its own interface. In addition, it was consistently the slowest of the five.Advanced File Encryption has three levels of security, culminating in full AES encryption with a 256-bit key. It's also one of the only programs to be able to protect an entire drive; however, it's not for those who like to customize their programs.I have to admit to being intrigued by QuickCrypto's eccentric interface, which offers three encryption techniques, but the program takes a while to figure out because it is so different from any other Windows program.Kryptel offers four encryption algorithms and has wizards that make it easy for anyone to encrypt, decrypt or shred a file.Finally, while not perfect, Kruptos 2 Professional comes the closest to my idea of an ideal security program for keeping secrets close to the digital vest. It's the only one of the five that offers a Windows and Mac version; it also has an Android app so you can protect what's on your tablet and phone and the company says it's working on an iOS version. It features the choice of AES or Blowfish encryption, lets you send an email with a self-extracting encrypted email attachment or store encrypted files online.Test results: Encryption software\u00a0CrytoForge Encryption SoftwareInv Softworks KryptelKakasoft Advanced Folder EncryptionKruptos 2 ProfessionalQuickCrypto - Ultimate EditionTime to encrypt 10 files* (sec.)21.918.104.22.168Time to decrypt 10 files* (sec.)22.214.171.124.44.4Time to encrypt 10 files* from USB thumb drive (min:sec)2:23.451.852.835.51:58.2Time to decrypt 10 files* from USB thumb drive (min:sec)1:07.746.945.935.21:15.2Time to encrypt 1.3GB video file (min:sec)1:31.420.321.717.536.7Time to decrypt 1.3GB video file (min:sec)16.617.017.220.813.7Time to shred 1.3GB file (seconds)59.932.7126.96.36.199\u00a0*Total 140MB. In all cases, lower numbers are better.