jan. President Reagan signs the Computer Security Act.
oct. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (known as the Marsh Commission) recommends new cyberdefense initiatives.
may President Clinton issues Presidential Decision Directive 63, which creates NIPC, CIAO and NIAC.
jan. The White House issues its National Plan for Information Systems Protection, the first attempt to create a national cyberdefense strategy.
oct. President Bush establishes the President's Critical Infrastructure Board and names Richard Clarke as its chairman.
jan. The Department of Homeland Security begins operations.
feb. The White House releases the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Clarke resigns; President Bush dissolves the position of cybersecurity czar in the White House.
march DHS absorbs CIAO, the Federal Computer Incident Response Center and most of NIPC.
june DHS creates the National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), located in the Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate, and later appoints Amit Yoran to lead it.
dec. DHS cohosts with four industry associations a National Cyber Security Summit in California; five working groups are established to address specific areas of cybersecurity.
jan. NCSD launches the National Cyber Alert System.